Global Management (Enterprise & Innovation)

BA (Hons)

Programme details

  • Next start date: Sep 2019
  • Future start date: Jan 2020
  • Study: Full-time
  • Duration: 3 years September start | 2.5 years January start
  • Fee: September 2019: £17,500
  • UCAS code: N120

The BA (Hons) Global Management is carefully structured to offer you an integrated and holistic approach to management studies. It builds your skills across four complementary areas of management practice, after which you follow a specialist pathway.

The programme not only taps into current trends, but also looks to the future, allowing you to study subjects that are highly relevant in today’s competitive workplace.

Our BA (Hons) Global Management programme will provide you with the skills that employers look for when recruiting managerial roles. Companies don't just need graduates with a solid grounding in business and management. They also require an understanding of enterprise, innovation, and the flexibility to adapt to trends and opportunities.

The Enterprise & Innovation pathway will teach you to develop your innovative ideas into successful operations, whether you're building a new business or an extra revenue stream for an existing company.

The programme will begin by giving you the confidence to build and operate a business. We take a holistic approach to your development as an innovator, covering important themes such as:

  • Accounting
  • Computer literacy
  • Critical thinking
  • Economics
  • Finance
  • Negotiation
  • Managing organisations
  • Social responsibility and ethics
  • Sustainability

You'll learn current practice, but also discover how to recognise future trends and identify potential opportunities for business. You will also have the opportunity to study elective modules that will broaden your knowledge and insight, from psychology to public relations strategy.

In your second year, you'll begin to focus on the strategies and approaches that make innovative teams thrive. You will explore entrepreneurial theory, and how to model and plan a new venture. You'll receive advice from guest speakers from some of London's most innovative companies, and guidance from experienced academics.

The programme will enable you to emerge as a confident decision-maker, able to challenge pre-conceptions and demonstrate both resilience and flexibility.

Register for an open day

Length

This is a full-time programme. It takes 3 years to complete if you start in September or 2.5 years if you start in January.

If you begin the programme in January, you will complete your second term in the summer (May to August). This enables you to begin your second year in September and complete your degree in 2.5 years. You will study for the same number of terms as students starting in September, but over a shorter period of time.

Your second and third year of study will then follow a standard academic year format of autumn and spring terms.

Regent's elective modules

During your studies you will choose three elective modules in any discipline across the University. This is to give you the opportunity to learn about different subjects. You will be encouraged to choose modules based on what you are most interested in.  

Regent's elective module list*

*Please note that this is an indicative list and that all modules are subject to availability and timetabling constraints.
 

Year 1

Module Title Overview
Academic Environment This module is designed to equip the student with the key skills and knowledge necessary to perform effectively in the academic environment. The module will aim to enable students to be resourceful in data collection, by using a variety of source types to compare and synthesise information, including databases and social media.

Students will learn how to acknowledge the origin of their data responsibly and present information in a clear and succinct way.
Accounting and Finance This module provides you with a fundamental understanding of accounting information systems, with particular reference to external and internal reporting, the nature and implications of costs in business decision-making; and an understanding of the principles of financial management that will enable you to make standard investment and financial decisions both in the long- and short-term.
Analytical Tools and Techniques for Business This module consists of two parts: business mathematics and statistics. The first will provide you with an understanding of linear and non-linear functions, solutions to systems of linear equations, of linear programming and the introductory concepts of mathematics of finance. In the second part, you will learn basic statistical methods from descriptive statistics to introductory concepts of statistical inference. Leaners also use mathematical and statistical functions in Excel.
Business Economics This module will introduce you to the key concepts and theoretical models of market behaviour. This module is expected to equip you with the necessary tools to develop a good understanding of both the microeconomic and macroeconomic environment in which a business operates.
Global Perspectives This is a University-wide common module, which facilitates interpersonal, intercultural and cross-disciplinary learning for all level 4 students enrolled on Regent’s validated degree programmes. The module introduces a range of ideas and ways of thinking based around the University’s values, reflected in its learning outcomes. It encourages students to interact with the broader University community, both socially and academically, asking them to cross the physical and intellectual borders of their degree programmes. Global Perspectives aims to increase self-awareness and prepares students for their subsequent studies by familiarising them with the resources available to meet their lifelong learning needs.
People and Organisations This module aims to provide a base knowledge of the key issues associated with people in organisations. The rationale of this module is to not only provide you with the key concepts and theoretical knowledge programmes but also to provide exposure to wider academic skills and analytical tools.

The module also aims to help you to identify the challenges which confront management and introduces management models used for the effective analysis and evaluation of those challenges. This module will provide the basis for evaluating the competing perspectives on what determines and influences the behaviour of people and how to manage people effectively and efficiently in contemporary organisations. You will be provided with the analytical tools to creatively understand and solve organisational and people issues.
Principles of Marketing This module is designed to introduce you to the core principles of marketing and give you a good understanding of the role of the marketing function within organisations. Marketing is about recognising, understanding and meeting the needs of your customers, who are becoming more and more demanding. This module will help you to understand how successful organisations have a marketing focus. It will consider the ways in which marketers can work effectively together with other departments to ensure that customer-centricity permeates throughout the organisation.

Technology and, in particular, the internet is transforming marketing at an incredible rate and hence this module will pay particular attention to the different ways in which marketers can make use of technology such as social media to improve their relationships with customers. Such technology also enables marketers to cross international boundaries with relative ease and the implications of this from the perspective of running international campaigns will be considered.
Regent's Elective Module The Regent’s elective modules allows you to select modules outside your subject area that will broaden your knowledge and perspective to further diversify your learning.

Year 2

Module Title Overview
Entrepreneurial Theory and Practice The module aims to provide you with the opportunity to interact with confidence with a vast range of literature and practice around the concepts of entrepreneurialism. The module will provide you with knowledge of key theories applicable within the field including, entrepreneurship strategies, effectuation, affordable means, systematic search, causal reasoning as well as entrepreneurial networks and relationships, imagining, managing change and value creation. You will be expected to build bridges between theory and practice and observe how the two areas of study collide and sometimes contradict themselves.
Introduction to Business Law The module aims to enable the student to understand the fundamental principles of law relating to business transactions and commercial entities, as well as being aware of consumer rights.

The module will introduce you to the law relating to business and management transactions and the legal implications of conducting different types of business activity. You will examine the principal legal concepts which engage in contract, tort and consumer protection. Further consideration will be given as to how business law engages with entrepreneurship and stewardship, as well as its role in ethics, sustainability and responsibility.

You will gain an understanding of the sources and characteristics of English law, you will also examine international law, human rights and the law of the European Union. Comparative jurisdictional differences will be explored within the context of entrepreneurship.
New Venture Modelling and Planning This module is designed to engage you in the processes and challenges involved in setting up a new business. It focuses on critical evaluation steps and investigation of realistic scenarios, whether you are seeking to start an independent business entirely from scratch, or adding a new strategic business unit to an existing family business. The module main objective is to allow you to engage and practice with entrepreneurial issues in order that they may become both confident and reflective on the role of new business development from an international perspective.
Strategic Management This module aims to allow you to explore and enhance their understanding of how organisations can create and implement strategy. This will predominantly (but not exclusively) be focused on larger organisations. The intention is to help you understand the simple structure or journey of where an organisation currently is, where it might want to get to, and how it might get there in terms of its strategy.

You will be enabled to understand what is going on outside the organisation (in terms of the environment and its industry/market etc.) as well as internally (culture, structure etc.). The module will also introduce you to the demands of the process of managing change. By the end of the module you will be able to combine insights from a range of techniques to give a more considered view of the organisation, its situation, what it might intend to do next and why.
Sustainability This module is the main introduction to broader concepts around stewardship for the programme. It aims to raise awareness and appreciation of the historic, contemporary and long term drivers and challenges impacting on the economy, society and the environment, and how business and societies respond to the various factors that affect them. The module will introduce you to a range of Sustainability concepts/ models and frameworks that relate to business practice, and will also provide you with a futures focus. Being able to identify opportunities and risks towards finding sustainable solutions is crucial for enterprises to develop successfully, be it locally, globally and by sector.
Regent's Elective Module The Regent’s elective modules allows you to select modules outside your subject area that will broaden your knowledge and perspective to further diversify your learning.
Regent's Elective Module The Regent’s elective modules allows you to select modules outside your subject area that will broaden your knowledge and perspective to further diversify your learning.

Year 3

Module Title Overview
Enterprise in Action The module gives students the opportunity to analyse an industry to identify potential opportunities and to critically evaluate a possible launch of a new product/service. The module focuses on the ideation stage informed by strategic thinking and design management, enabling students to develop and apply a tool-kit of methods to identify, present, and new thinking, whilst mitigating likely barriers.

The module aims to equip students with an ability to analyse existing markets to identify potential gaps, build and judge a compelling business case, to help see how companies could become more entrepreneurial in their business processes.
Managing Entrepreneurial Growth in SMEs and Family Businesses This module aims to provide you with the opportunity to interact fully with the literature and thinking around entrepreneurial growth in the context of SME (small to medium enterprise) and the family business context.

In this module you will further explore how to manage the entrepreneurial tendencies in family and small and medium-sized businesses (SME). You will learn why entrepreneurs and owner-managers have been recognised globally as key actors in sustaining the development of regional, national and international economies by embracing disruptive technologies. The module will further explore how disruption has enabled both family and SMEs businesses to compete effectively with large corporations. The module will confirm that interest in entrepreneurship continues to increase and entrepreneurial skill sets are highly sort after by businesses and recognised as competences based on individuals’ behavioural characteristic including their propensity to create, motivate, engage in social and business networks as well as recognize opportunities.
Optimising Operations and Change This module will allow you to study how businesses manage change well and in some cases why this goes wrong? The module aims to enable you to understand in depth and gain detailed new insights into the systemic nature and impacts of challenging but essential change management processes for business.

The module further aims to enable you to differentiate between simplistic knowledge management ‘solutions’ and the process of knowing how to ‘make a difference’ – the practice of power – which lies at the heart of effective management, leading to sustainably optimised change within a business context.
Social Enterprise This module highlights the role of social enterprise in all business and non-business sectors. Key concepts such as social innovation are used to focus you on how social enterprise delivers wider benefits. You will be further exposed to the emerging study of social enterprise (both for profit and not for profit) as a feature player in the global business world. The key differences in a range of areas such as marketing, employment, finance etc. between social enterprise and other forms of enterprise will be explored.
Strategic Entrepreneurship and Innovation The entrepreneur is likely to play a more significant part in the growth and development of national economies in a global world. In addition, in this module the model of entrepreneurship as the embedded sustainability perspective is used to question current and future roles of entrepreneurs. The principles expressed in this module will apply to all geographies and all sizes of company’s’ including global organizations. The module will:

Examine the foundations, theory, scope of entrepreneurship, and identify significant entrepreneurial trends in the global trading environment whilst critically reviewing the characteristics of the entrepreneur - a born leader?
Explore the nature of rapidly growing companies, the role of the entrepreneur in such environments and explain rapid-growth strategies for entrepreneurial companies;
Explore the effects of the dynamic trading environment of the modern environment as well as critically evaluate management change in the entrepreneurial company;
Investigate the impact of social responsibility on entrepreneurial companies and evaluate the impact of models of social entrepreneurship on fulfilling societal and ethical concerns in the modern era.
Free option You will also choose another elective module from any across the BA (Hons) Global Management at Year 3.
Individualised Learning Project The module is only available at the discretion of the appropriate Head of Programme. It is also only available as a replacement for credits missing from elective modules within the degree programme. Students with Tier 4 Visa must complete this module at Regent’s campus.

Year 2 & 3 pathway modules

You will also select one of the following modules on your second and one on your third year:

Module Title Overview
Entrepreneurship Finance and Venture Capital This module will allow you to focus on the financial valuation of a new business. A range of methods of obtaining finance and analysis of funding structures will also be a feature. You will explore developments in valuation methodology which investigate modern approaches to asset classes including non-tangibles.
International Business Law This module aims to allow you to examine the fundamentals of international business law and its practical implications for international business transactions. You will be able to engage with a range of legal concepts which underpin the business world by providing a framework for cross border transactions. In particular the legal background of the EU will feature as a topic for investigation.
Project Management for Enterprise The aim of this module is to facilitate your full understanding of Project Management tools and techniques. The role of the project manager in balancing between controlling organisations costs and risks whilst also maintaining quality will be emphasised. You will learn how an understanding of how to apply these techniques can help organisations in carrying out large scale complex projects within budget and on time. This module also aims to move between theoretical and practical content to equip you with critical skills in planning, executing and monitoring complex projects.
Web and App Design for Innovation This module aims to equip you with an in depth overview of the strategic importance of a strongly designed online and mobile presence. You will acquire the skills and knowledge required to undertake web and mobile app content design and development, from conceptualisation to development.

How to apply

Applying to study at Regent's University London is quick and easy. We have put together some helpful information to guide you through the process. We accept direct applications and there is no application fee.

Not received your results yet?

That's fine, you can still apply even without your exam results. We can issue a conditional offer without your results. You just need be clear in your application which qualifications you are currently studying for.

Step 1 Apply

You can apply in the following ways:

If you have not uploaded the relevant supporting documents during the online application process, you should ensure that we have the below supporting documents as soon as you have completed your application. These can be sent to the Regent’s Admissions Department via email to [email protected].

  • Copies of academic transcripts and certificates from all previous studies (i.e. secondary school and/or university certificates)
  • One academic letter of recommendation
  • A 300-500 word personal statement outlining the reasons for applying to your chosen programme, how you feel you will benefit from the programme of study, what contributions you will make to the University and how this will help your future career aspirations.
  • A copy of your passport photograph (ID) page
  • If you are not a native English speaker, proof of your English proficiency

Credit Transfer

  • If you’ve already studied part of a degree course elsewhere, you may be able apply for Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and join the programme at an advanced entry point. If you’d like to request entry part-way through a programme, make sure you state this clearly in your statement of purpose and provide us with the transcripts and module descriptions for the relevant study.

Step 2 Receive a response to your application

You can expect to receive a decision on your application within 10 working days of receipt of your completed application and supporting documents.

We will assess whether you meet our entry requirements and will notify you of the decision via email. UCAS applicants will also receive official notification via the UCAS system.

For some of our programmes, the selection process may include an interview or audition. Interviews/auditions can take the form of a one-to-one interview, group interview or portfolio review which may be conducted by telephone or as a Skype call. Arrangements of these are made between the Admissions Department and the applicant.

Step 3 Accepting your offer

If you wish to accept the offer, please pay the advance tuition fee deposit (non-refundable) to confirm your place. 

Please see here for information on how to pay.

Step 4 After you have accepted your place

Closer to the start of the term, the Admissions Team will send information regarding the registration process. This will include information on completing your online enrolment prior to your arrival as well as a checklist of documents you will need to bring with you to fully register onto the programme.

Information for international students

If you are an overseas student requiring visa sponsorship to study in the UK, our team will be in touch with information on applying for your student visa and the documents you will need. More information can be found on our visas and immigration page.

Bursaries

As part of our public benefit commitment, we aim to ensure that students are not deterred from applying to Regent’s University London because of financial difficulties. Each year we offer a number of means-tested University bursaries for full-time study on undergraduate programmes.

Full details

The Vice-Chancellor’s Excellence Scholarship

Professor Aldwyn Cooper, Vice-Chancellor of Regent’s University London, wishes to recognise and reward three students each year who demonstrate particular commitment to upholding the University’s values and the ability to play an ambassadorial role for the University during their studies. 

Full details

The Dean of Business & Management’s Excellence Scholarship

The Dean of the Faculty of Business & Management has established three scholarships that celebrate the University’s independent, cosmopolitan and enterprising spirit. 

Full details

Undergraduate Scholarships

Students with three B grades at A-level (or equivalent qualification), and progressing Regent's foundation students who achieve a minimum 70% average across all modules will receive a £1,500 scholarship for each year of their degree programme.

Full details

The Filippo Corsini Polo Scholarship, in association with the International Federation of Polo

The University awards two polo scholarships each year to students who show both the polo skills and the leadership acumen to help the Regent’s polo team's development. The scholarship is named in memory of Regent’s student Prince Filippo Corsini, an accomplished equestrian and showjumper.

Full details

Regent’s Family Reward

Regent’s offers an intimate style of education, characterised by lots of personal attention. This personalised approach extends beyond our students to their families, with the University welcoming increasing numbers of brothers, sisters and even children of our alumni each year. The University is delighted to offer the Regent’s Family Reward as a thank-you to our alumni for their and their families’ loyalty.

Full details

Future Finance loans

Alternative loan funding* for students studying at Regent's University London.

Full details

US Financial Aid

Direct subsidised and unsubsidised loans for US citizens, as well as Direct PLUS loans for eligible US citizens and Green Card holders administered by the US Department of Education (USED) for all eligible degree programmes offered at Regent’s University London.

Full details

State-Sponsored Funding for Students from Norway

Loans and grants for Norwegian students studying for undergraduate or postgraduate degrees at Regent's University London.

Full details

State-Sponsored Funding for Students from Sweden

Loans and grants for Swedish students studying for undergraduate or postgraduate degrees at Regent's University London.

Full details

Undergraduate loans - Student Finance England 2018/19

Funding for UK, and EU nationals, as well as students with the status of Migrant Worker.

Full details

Tuition fees for September 2019 and January 2020 entrants

Please note that students joining us in January 2020 for either the foundation year or first year of their undergraduate programme will be required to take a summer term of teaching as their first level of study is accelerated. This means that you will be expected to make 3 payments between January 2020 and December 2020. 

Fees are payable as shown in the table below:

Fees Payable for each term
    Sep 2019 Jan 2020 *May 2020 Sep 2020 Jan 2021
Programme Start Date Sep 2019 £8,750 £8,750 N/A £9,000 £9,000
Programme Start Date Jan 2020 N/A £8,750 £8,750 £9,000 £9,000

 

Please note that the above table only shows the cost for the first two years of your studies. You will still, however, be liable for fees until the end of your course. The fees after the years above are not currently listed, but will be published when they have been confirmed. *This term only applies to January starters for their first year of study at Regent’s.

Tuition fees for September 2020 entrants

Annual tuition fee: £18,000

Non-refundable advance deposit

Home/EU students: £1,000 
Non-EU students: £4,000
Non-EU students in receipt of US Federal Loans: £1,000

What do fees include?

Fees cover the cost of all tuition and access to the University’s IT infrastructure and library learning resources.

What other costs should I budget for?

You will need to budget additional funds for accommodation and living expenses, travel, and any additional trips, visits, activities or courses (such as Summer programmes) that you choose to participate in outside of the tuition offered as part of the programme.

The library hold a limited number of copies of core text books and where possible in e-format. You will be encouraged to purchase your own text books and will need to budget approximately £80-£100 per year, depending on your programme of study.

When are fees paid?

Fees are payable in the following instalments:

  • An initial non-refundable advance deposit paid when you accept your offer of a place
  • The advance deposit is allocated against the first term’s fees
  • Tuition fees (including fees for subsequent terms) are due two weeks in advance of classes commencing

Calculating fee increases

  • The University sets tuition fees on an annual basis in line with the University's financial year which runs from 1 August to 31 July
  • The fees quoted here are for one year of study for those starting in September 2019 or January 2020.
  • Fees for subsequent years of study are subject to fee inflation
  • The University aims to keep annual fee increases in line with the University’s cost inflation. The expectation is that this will be no greater than UK consumer price inflation (CPI) plus 3%. There are occasionally variations to this dictated by the costs of running specific programmes or facilities required for our programmes
  • As a registered charity, all fee increases are subject to approval of the Trustee Board thus ensuring that affordability for our students remains a primary concern in any decisions regarding fee increases

The Global Management programme is designed to encourage both your academic and personal development. You will learn and consider core principles of innovation and entrepreneurship in lectures, seminars, and through online classroom activities.

As you progress, you will be encouraged to take a more critical approach, applying what you have learned by exploring real-world case studies, role play and simulations. Our London location also puts you on the doorstep of a range of pioneering businesses, which you will explore and analyse through visits and guest lectures.

Academic calendar

Contact hours and expected workload

Our modules are designed with 10 or 20 credits (equivalent to 100 or 200 notional learning hours). The notional learning hour includes directed and self-directed learning hour. Directed learning hours, such as lectures, seminars, labs or workshops, are normally 3 hours per week per module. In total, you will have approximately 18 to 21 directed learning hours per week in each term.

Teaching staff

Our teaching staff represent a diverse range of professional and academic backgrounds, a with large percentage having extensive industry experience. Many are research-active and regularly publish in respected academic journals and at conferences. We are very proud of the global nature of our programme, and our lecturers also reflect this ethos, coming from a wide variety of countries and cultures across the world. In every way, you will feel part of a genuine global family.

We provide a focused and personal treatment of our students as they progress through the programme. We ensure that students enjoy open lines of communication with lecturers and heads of programme alike.

All our staff hold postgraduate qualifications in their subject area, and a large section hold PhDs or are studying for one. In addition, most of our staff are holding the Fellowship of Higher Education Academy (HEA) from Fellow to Principal Fellow. We also encourage our teaching staff to undertake the Postgraduate Certificate in Higher Education.

Methods of assessment

A wide range of assessment methods are used, including:

  • Examinations
  • Presentations
  • Written assignments
  • Portfolio
  • Work and business simulations

Disability Support

We welcome and support students with a wide range of disabilities and health concerns. This includes learning difficulties, visual and hearing impairments, mental health difficulties, autism spectrum conditions, mobility difficulties, and temporary or chronic health conditions.

Our dedicated Disability Officer is here to support you. We ask that you speak with Student Registry and our Disability Officer as early as you can to enable us to support you. Find out more about our disability support and contact us.

Academic requirements

A Regent’s education provides you with a high level of personal attention, and this begins from the moment you apply to study with us. We want to understand who you are and what your skills and interests may be – we are interested in your potential, as well as your prior achievements. We review each application comprehensively and on its individual merit, considering all of your skills, interests and attributes.

If you are holding A levels, we would typically make you an offer at grades BBC. 

We will also assess your application for proficiency in Mathematics, asking for a GCSE in this subject at grade A-C / 9-4 (or the international equivalent).  

We receive applications each year from over 170 countries and are happy to assess all international qualifications. For example, if you are studying the International Baccalaureate, we would make an offer based on your successful completion of the IB Diploma; if you are studying an American High School Diploma, we would make an offer based on a minimum GPA of 2.8 plus three APs at grades 4, 4, 3.

English Language requirements

English is our language of instruction and we require proof of your English proficiency. 
You can demonstrate your English proficiency with:

  • IELTS: Overall score of 6.0 with no score below 5.5 in any of the four components
  • PTE Academic: Overall score of 58, with 51 or above in each individual component
  • TOEFL IBT: Overall score 80. (We do not accept TOEFL from applicants requiring a Tier 4 visa, as this qualification is no longer accepted by the UK Visas and Immigration Department (UKVI)
  • A-level/GCSE/IGCSE English: Grade C / 4 or above (for IGCSE certificates, please provide the Supplementary Certifying Statement with the breakdown of component grades)
  • International Baccalaureate: Grade 4 or above in English at Higher or Standard Level

This list is not exhaustive. We will review the English qualifications you submit as part of your application and be in contact if we require anything further.
For applicants who wish to improve their English language proficiency, please see our English language courses.

On-campus diagnostic test

For offer holders able to visit us in London, we can provide a free on-campus English diagnostic test.  This test must be arranged in advance. To book a test, please contact [email protected]. Please note, this is a diagnostic test for Regent’s University London applicants only.

English for Academic Purposes (EAP)

As a Regent’s student you will take an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) module in your first semester in order to support the development of your academic work in English.
Please note that students who achieve an IELTS 6.5, with a minimum score of 5.5 in each component, or an equivalent result, are exempt from taking the EAP module and have an additional academic module.

Students entering with Recognition of Prior Learning

If you are joining your programme at an advanced entry point, we require IELTS 6.5 with a minimum 6.0 in Reading and Writing, with no score below 5.5 in any other components.

Our holistic and critical approach prepares you to become flexible, informed and proactive manager. This will enable you to pursue a career in a corporate environment, or become an entrepreneur.

Your career options are varied, and include:

  • Junior management positions in fields including commerce, manufacturing, IT and finance
  • Starting your own business
  • Advising and consulting
  • Diversifying a family business
  • Leading Innovation Teams within companies
  • Running an effective social enterprise
  • Managing and modernising public sector departments

You may also choose to continue your studies to Masters level. Regent's offers a range of MA degrees in Business & Management including International BusinessManagement and Luxury Brand Management.

Apply now

BA (Hons) Global Management (Enterprise & Innovation)

BA (Hons) Global Management (Enterprise & Innovation) with Integrated Foundation

Makhdoom Zaman

Makhdoom in the grounds at Regent's
'Regent's played a vital role in preparing me for my career. Being exposed to such internationalism at university really helped me to understand people, which is an essential part of politics.' Makhdoom Zaman
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